(Part 5) Union (Chapter I) President and Vice President Articles 52-55

Union President Vice President

Article 52. Union Presidentthe Vice-President shall be the President of India.

Article 53. (1) The executive power of the Union shall vest with the President and shall be exercised by him directly or by his subordinate officers in accordance with this Constitution.

 (2) Without prejudice to the generality of the foregoing provision, the supreme command of the Union’s defense forces shall vest in the President and shall be governed by law for the same.

 (3) Nothing in this article –

 (A) The President shall be deemed to transfer the functions conferred by any existing law upon the government of any State or other authority; or

(B) prohibits the Parliament from defending the law on acts other than the President.

(भाग 5) संघ (अध्याय I) राष्ट्रपति और उपराष्ट्रपति अनुच्छेद 52-55

Article 54. The President shall be elected by the members of an electoral college consisting of-

 (A) elected members of both houses of parliament; And

 (B) Elected members of state legislatures.

 1 [Explanation. – In this article and article 55, “State” includes the National Capital Territory of Delhi and * Union Territory of Pondicherry.

Article 55. (1) As far as practicable, there will be uniformity in the scale of representation of various states at the time of the election of the President.

(2) For the purpose of achieving such uniformity between states, as well as equality between states and the Union as a whole, the number of votes each elected member of Parliament and the Legislative Assembly of each state is entitled to. After such election shall be determined in the following manner: –

(A) Every elected member of the Legislative Assembly of the state shall have as many votes as the quotient obtained by dividing the population of the state by the total number of elected members of the Legislative Assembly has multiples of one thousand;

(B) if, after taking one thousand of the said multiplier, the balance is not less than five hundred, the vote of each member referred to in sub-clause (a) shall be increased by one;

 (C) Each elected member of any House of Parliament shall have the number of votes received by subdivision (a) and (b) by dividing the total number of votes assigned to the members of the legislatures of the States. From the total number of elected members of both the Houses of Parliament, more than one share is being counted and other fractions are being disregarded.

 (3) The election of the President shall be in accordance with the system of proportional representation by means of single transferable vote and voting in such election shall be by secret ballot.

 1 [Explanation. – In this article, the expression “population” means the population of the last population census whose relevant figures have been published:

 Provided that the explanation for this preceding census in which the relevant figures have been published, until the relevant figures have been published for the first census after 1 [2026], is considered as a 1971 reference. Census.]

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